By Paribesh Sapkota

Concept of Management and Business Management

Management is the process of coordinating and overseeing the work activities of others so that organizational goals can be accomplished efficiently and effectively.

Business Management specifically involves managing business operations and decision-making processes to achieve the strategic goals and objectives of an organization.

The Management Process

The management process typically includes the following functions:

  1. Planning: Setting objectives and determining a course of action to achieve those objectives.
  2. Organizing: Arranging resources and tasks to implement the plans.
  3. Leading: Motivating and managing teams to work towards the organizational goals.
  4. Controlling: Monitoring and evaluating the progress towards goals and making adjustments as needed.

Types of Managers

  1. General Managers: Oversee the entire organization or significant parts of it. They are responsible for all functional areas and make decisions that affect the overall direction of the business.
  2. Functional Managers: Focus on a specific function within the organization, such as marketing, finance, or production. They are responsible for the performance of their specific area.
  3. Line Managers: Directly oversee the day-to-day operations and supervise employees. They are responsible for implementing the plans and policies set by higher management levels.

Basic Managerial Roles and Skills

Managerial Roles (Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles):

Interpersonal Roles

  1. Figurehead:
    • Description: As a figurehead, a manager performs ceremonial and symbolic duties. This role involves representing the organization in various formal capacities.
    • Examples: Attending official functions, signing legal documents, and welcoming visitors.
  2. Leader:
    • Description: In the leader role, a manager is responsible for motivating and managing employees. This involves direct interactions with subordinates and efforts to guide and support them in achieving organizational goals.
    • Examples: Providing guidance and feedback, motivating staff, and overseeing employee development.
  3. Liaison:
    • Description: Acting as a liaison, a manager connects with individuals and groups outside the organization to build relationships and networks. This role is crucial for gathering information and resources that benefit the organization.
    • Examples: Networking with other businesses, communicating with external stakeholders, and participating in industry associations.

Informational Roles

  1. Monitor:
    • Description: As a monitor, a manager continuously seeks and acquires information relevant to the organization. This involves staying informed about internal and external factors that affect the business.
    • Examples: Reading reports, tracking industry trends, and monitoring competitors.
  2. Disseminator:
    • Description: In the disseminator role, a manager transmits information from external sources or higher levels of the organization to subordinates. This ensures that employees are well-informed and aligned with the organization’s goals.
    • Examples: Communicating policies, sharing updates on projects, and informing staff about changes in procedures.
  3. Spokesperson:
    • Description: Acting as a spokesperson, a manager represents the organization to external parties. This role involves communicating on behalf of the organization to stakeholders, the media, and the public.
    • Examples: Giving interviews, making public statements, and presenting at conferences.

Decisional Roles

  1. Entrepreneur:
    • Description: In the entrepreneur role, a manager initiates and oversees new projects that improve the organization. This involves identifying opportunities, developing new ideas, and implementing changes.
    • Examples: Launching new products, exploring new markets, and leading innovation initiatives.
  2. Disturbance Handler:
    • Description: As a disturbance handler, a manager deals with unexpected problems and crises that arise. This role requires quick decision-making and problem-solving skills to minimize disruptions.
    • Examples: Resolving conflicts, managing crises, and handling operational breakdowns.
  3. Resource Allocator:
    • Description: In the resource allocator role, a manager is responsible for distributing resources within the organization. This includes allocating budget, personnel, and equipment to various projects and departments.
    • Examples: Approving budgets, assigning tasks, and allocating resources to strategic initiatives.
  4. Negotiator:
    • Description: Acting as a negotiator, a manager engages in negotiations with various parties to secure favorable outcomes for the organization. This involves bargaining with suppliers, customers, and other stakeholders.
    • Examples: Negotiating contracts, mediating disputes, and securing partnerships.

Managerial Skills

To effectively perform these roles, managers need a combination of the following skills:

  1. Technical Skills:
    • Description: Proficiency in a specific field or technical area. This includes knowledge and expertise related to the manager’s area of responsibility.
    • Examples: Engineering skills for a technical manager, financial analysis for a finance manager.
  2. Human Skills:
    • Description: The ability to work well with others, build relationships, and manage teams. This includes communication, empathy, and conflict resolution skills.
    • Examples: Leading a team meeting, resolving employee conflicts, and providing constructive feedback.
  3. Conceptual Skills:
    • Description: The ability to think critically and analytically about complex situations. This includes strategic thinking, problem-solving, and the ability to see the big picture.
    • Examples: Developing long-term strategies, analyzing market trends, and making high-level decisions.

Changing Job of Managers

Managers’ roles are continually evolving in response to significant changes in the external environment. These changes necessitate that managers develop new skills, adapt to new circumstances, and continuously learn and innovate. Key drivers of this evolution include:

  1. Globalization:
    • Impact: Globalization has expanded markets, increased competition, and created opportunities for growth in new regions. Managers must navigate diverse cultural, legal, and economic environments.
    • Response: Managers need to develop cultural intelligence, understand global market dynamics, and manage cross-border teams effectively. This includes being sensitive to cultural differences, managing global supply chains, and adhering to international regulations.
  2. Technological Advances:
    • Impact: Rapid technological advancements are transforming how businesses operate. Technologies such as AI, big data, and automation are changing job roles, business models, and customer expectations.
    • Response: Managers must be tech-savvy and capable of leveraging new technologies to enhance efficiency, improve decision-making, and create new value propositions. This involves continuous learning, fostering a digital culture, and integrating technology into business processes.
  3. Increased Emphasis on Ethics and Sustainability:
    • Impact: There is growing pressure from stakeholders, including customers, investors, and regulators, for businesses to operate ethically and sustainably. This trend is driven by concerns about environmental impact, social responsibility, and corporate governance.
    • Response: Managers need to integrate ethical and sustainable practices into their strategies and operations. This involves setting and enforcing ethical standards, implementing sustainable business practices, and engaging in corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives.

Management Challenges

  1. Globalization:
    • Challenges: Managing across different cultures and markets requires understanding diverse customer preferences, regulatory environments, and competitive landscapes. Communication barriers and time zone differences add complexity.
    • Strategies: To address these challenges, managers can:
      • Develop cross-cultural competencies and language skills.
      • Implement flexible organizational structures that allow for local autonomy.
      • Build diverse teams with global perspectives.
  2. Technological Change:
    • Challenges: Keeping pace with rapid technological changes can be daunting. Managers must decide which technologies to adopt, manage the implementation process, and ensure that employees are adequately trained.
    • Strategies: Managers can:
      • Invest in ongoing training and development programs for employees.
      • Foster a culture of innovation and openness to change.
      • Collaborate with technology experts and consultants.
  3. Sustainability and Ethics:
    • Challenges: Balancing profitability with ethical and sustainable practices can be challenging. Companies must address environmental impacts, ensure fair labor practices, and maintain transparency.
    • Strategies: Managers can:
      • Develop and enforce robust CSR policies.
      • Measure and report on sustainability metrics.
      • Engage with stakeholders to understand their concerns and expectations.
  4. Diversity:
    • Challenges: Managing a diverse workforce involves addressing differences in backgrounds, perspectives, and working styles. It can lead to misunderstandings and conflicts if not handled properly.
    • Strategies: Managers can:
      • Promote inclusivity through diversity training programs.
      • Implement fair hiring practices and create opportunities for underrepresented groups.
      • Foster an inclusive workplace culture where all employees feel valued and respected.
  5. Innovation:
    • Challenges: Fostering a culture of innovation requires overcoming resistance to change and encouraging creative thinking. It involves balancing risk-taking with prudent decision-making.
    • Strategies: Managers can:
      • Encourage experimentation and accept failure as a learning opportunity.
      • Allocate resources for research and development.
      • Recognize and reward innovative ideas and initiatives.

Acquaintance to Task and General Environment of Business

Task Environment: The task environment comprises external factors that are directly related to the organization’s operations and goals. These factors have an immediate impact on the organization’s ability to serve its customers and achieve its objectives. Key components of the task environment include:

  1. Customers: Individuals or organizations that purchase the company’s products or services. Understanding customer needs and preferences is crucial for maintaining market share and ensuring customer satisfaction.
  2. Suppliers: Entities that provide the necessary resources, such as raw materials, components, or services, to produce the company’s products. The quality, price, and reliability of suppliers affect the production process and overall quality of the final product.
  3. Competitors: Other companies offering similar products or services. Analyzing competitors helps in understanding the market landscape, identifying strengths and weaknesses, and developing competitive strategies.
  4. Regulatory Agencies: Government bodies that create and enforce regulations affecting the industry. Compliance with regulations is essential to avoid legal issues and maintain a good reputation.

General Environment: The general environment includes broader factors that affect the organization indirectly. These factors influence the overall context in which the organization operates and can shape long-term strategies. Key components of the general environment include:

  1. Economic Conditions: Economic factors such as inflation, unemployment rates, and economic growth affect consumer purchasing power and demand for products and services.
  2. Technological Changes: Innovations and advancements in technology can create new opportunities for efficiency, product development, and market expansion. They can also render existing products or processes obsolete.
  3. Socio-cultural Factors: Social trends, cultural norms, demographics, and lifestyle changes impact consumer behavior and preferences. Organizations need to adapt to these changes to remain relevant.
  4. Political and Legal Conditions: Political stability, government policies, and legal frameworks influence business operations. Changes in regulations, tax policies, and trade agreements can have significant implications for businesses.
  5. Environmental Factors: Environmental concerns and sustainability issues are increasingly important. Organizations must consider their environmental impact and adopt sustainable practices to meet regulatory requirements and customer expectations.

Analysis of Task Environment Using Porter’s Five Forces Model

Porter’s Five Forces Model provides a framework for analyzing the competitive forces within an industry. It helps organizations understand the dynamics that influence their profitability and develop strategies to enhance their competitive position. The five forces are:

  1. Threat of New Entrants:
    • Factors Influencing Threat: Barriers to entry, such as capital requirements, economies of scale, brand loyalty, access to distribution channels, and regulatory constraints.
    • Impact: High threat of new entrants can increase competition and reduce profitability. Firms need to build strong brands, achieve cost advantages, and create barriers to entry to protect their market position.
  2. Bargaining Power of Suppliers:
    • Factors Influencing Power: Number of suppliers, availability of substitute inputs, supplier concentration, and the importance of suppliers’ goods to the buyer’s business.
    • Impact: Powerful suppliers can drive up prices or reduce the quality of goods, affecting the firm’s profitability. Organizations should diversify their supplier base and develop strong relationships with key suppliers.
  3. Bargaining Power of Buyers:
    • Factors Influencing Power: Number of buyers, availability of alternative products, buyers’ price sensitivity, and the importance of the product to the buyer.
    • Impact: Buyers with high bargaining power can demand lower prices or higher quality, squeezing the firm’s margins. Companies should focus on differentiation, customer loyalty programs, and enhancing product value.
  4. Threat of Substitute Products or Services:
    • Factors Influencing Threat: Availability of substitutes, buyer’s propensity to switch, and the relative price and performance of substitutes.
    • Impact: High threat of substitutes can limit the price that firms can charge and affect profitability. Firms should innovate continuously, improve product quality, and offer unique features to mitigate this threat.
  5. Industry Rivalry:
    • Factors Influencing Rivalry: Number of competitors, rate of industry growth, product differentiation, and the level of fixed costs.
    • Impact: Intense rivalry can lead to price wars, increased marketing costs, and reduced profitability. Companies need to focus on strategic positioning, differentiation, and efficient operations to compete effectively.

Application: Preparing a Company Profile Focusing on Task Environment

When preparing a company profile with a focus on the task environment, consider the following steps:

  1. Overview:
    • Company Name and Description: Basic information about the company, including its mission, vision, and core values.
    • History: Key milestones and historical developments.
  2. Products and Services:
    • Main Offerings: Detailed description of products and services.
    • Unique Selling Points: What differentiates the company’s offerings from competitors.
  3. Market Position:
    • Market Share: Current position in the market.
    • Target Market: Key customer segments and demographics.
  4. SWOT Analysis:
    • Strengths: Internal capabilities and resources.
    • Weaknesses: Internal limitations and areas for improvement.
    • Opportunities: External factors that the company can capitalize on.
    • Threats: External challenges that the company faces.
  5. Task Environment Analysis:
    • Customers: Who they are, their needs, and how the company meets those needs.
    • Suppliers: Key suppliers, their importance, and relationships.
    • Competitors: Major competitors and the company’s competitive advantage.
    • Regulatory Agencies: Relevant laws and regulations impacting the company.
  6. Strategic Initiatives:
    • Current Strategies: Strategies in place to address challenges and opportunities.
    • Future Plans: Planned initiatives to improve market position and performance.


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